Reductive Stress: New Insights in Physiology and Drug Tolerance of .

Mavi, Parminder Singh and Singh, Shweta and Kumar, Ashwani (2019) Reductive Stress: New Insights in Physiology and Drug Tolerance of . Antioxidants & redox signaling. ISSN 1557-7716

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(Mtb) encounters reductive stress during its infection cycle. Notably, host-generated protective responses, such as acidic pH inside phagosomes and lysosomes, exposure to glutathione in alveolar hypophase (, a thin liquid lining consisting of surfactant and proteins in the alveolus), and hypoxic environments inside granulomas are associated with the accumulation of reduced cofactors, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, flavin adenine dinucleotide (reduced form), and nonprotein thiols (, mycothiol), leading to reductive stress in Mtb cells. Dissipation of this reductive stress is important for survival of the bacterium. If reductive stress is not dissipated, it leads to generation of reactive oxygen species, which may be fatal for the cells. This review focuses on mechanisms utilized by mycobacteria to sense and respond to reductive stress. Importantly, exposure of Mtb cells to reductive stress leads to growth inhibition, altered metabolism, modulation of virulence, and drug tolerance. Mtb is equipped with thiol buffering systems of mycothiol and ergothioneine to protect itself from various redox stresses. These systems are complemented by thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase (TR) systems for maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. A diverse array of sensors is used by for monitoring its intracellular redox status. Upon sensing reductive stress, Mtb uses a flexible and robust metabolic system for its dissipation. Branched electron transport chain allows to function with different terminal electron acceptors and modulate proton motive force to fulfill energy requirements under diverse scenarios. Interestingly, Mtb utilizes variations in the tricarboxylic cycle and a number of dehydrogenases to dissipate reductive stress. Upon prolonged exposure to reductive stress, Mtb utilizes biosynthesis of storage and virulence lipids as a dissipative mechanism. The mechanisms utilized by for sensing and tackling reductive stress are not well characterized. The precise role of thiol buffering and TR systems in neutralizing reductive stress is not well defined. Genetic systems that respond to metabolic reductive stress and thiol reductive stress need to be mapped. Genetic screens could aid in identification of such systems. Given that management of reductive stress is critical for both actively replicating and persister mycobacteria, an improved understanding of the mechanisms used by mycobacteria for dissipation of reductive stress may lead to identification of vulnerable choke points that could be targeted for killing Mtb .

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to Mary Ann Liebert
Uncontrolled Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis; drug tolerance; redox sensing; reductive stress; thiol reductive stress; virulence
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
Depositing User: Dr. K.P.S.Sengar
Date Deposited: 05 Dec 2019 14:40
Last Modified: 05 Dec 2019 14:40

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